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ageratum seeds germination

26 grudnia 2020
Kategorie: Bez kategorii

Data were analyzed using the software SAS v. 9.4 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA) and means were separated using Fisher’s Least Significant Difference test whenever the ANOVA indicated significance. 70°F is ideal for germination. Twenty-five seeds were placed in Petri dishes lined with Whatman No. As discussed earlier, A. houstonianum is photoblastic and needs light for germination. A seed was considered to be germinated when a 1 mm or more radicle emerged from the seed. The soil was autoclaved and passed through a 3-mm sieve. It was brought to Europe from these regions as an ornamental plant [6]. You can alternatively mist the soil before you plant the seeds. Your seeds definitely may have a little more kick in them than this list says, especially if stored properly. Number of seeds germinated was recorded 5 days after sowing for ageratum, 8 days for marigold, 12 days for petunia and seed geranium, 14 days for alyssum, 18 days for impatiens, and 21 days for begonia and salvia. Unlike many other blue flowers, ageratum tolerates some shade, making them a favorite choice for an elegant shady border or a container garden. Because germination data expressed as percentages lacked normal distribution, a generalized linear model (glm) was used to analyze seedling and germination or survival of the seeds with Table 1. Fold the towel over the seeds & … Once a seed had germinated, it was counted and removed from the Petri dish using tweezers. These findings will help predict future invasions and in development of management strategies for this IAPS. 1 filter paper. This process provided an estimate of the viability of the seeds in each treatment when they failed to germinate. Discover a faster, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal. Information on environmental factors affecting the germination of A. houstonianum specifically could prove to be very helpful in understanding its ecology and development of management techniques not only in Nepal but globally because of its worldwide presence. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Susan Patterson is a health and gardening advocate. Cultivation Advice Ageratum Blue Mink. In our study, germination of A. houstonianum seeds occurred between a pH range of 6 and 9 with maximum germination at pH 7. From the non-linear regression, it was estimated that soil depth for 50% inhibition (compared to that at the soil surface) of seedling emergence was approximately 2.5 mm. Any seed that failed to germinate in each treatment was collected carefully with a tweezer, washed in distilled water, transferred to a Petri dish lined with a filter paper, 10 ml of distilled water was added, and the Petri dish was placed back into the chamber. The seeds were positively photoblastic because no germination occurred under dark condition. Formal analysis, Position in full sun to part shade. ledons were fully expanded. This suggested that neutral-to-alkaline soils were more suited for its germination than acidic soils. In recent years, it is reported to have a presence in all continents and pose serious threat to different ecosystems including community forests all over the world [7]. The first and second round of the experiments were conducted in April/May 2018 and June/July 2018, respectively. The first and second round of the experiments were conducted in May/June 2018 and July/August 2018, respectively. The pH levels were confirmed with a microprocessor pH meter (Hanna Instruments, Model pH213, Carrollton, TX, USA). However, evaluation was continued up to ten days to assess the germination of the seeds under the dark treatment. Germination was greatest (approximately 65 to 70%) when the seeds were stored for four weeks and then tested. Almost 50% of the seeds that were planted on the day they were collected germinated. Do not cover seed as light aids germination. Germination info: Cover seed; 72-75°F; 3 days. Writing – review & editing, Affiliation The Petri dishes were then sealed with parafilm and placed in the seed germination chamber set at a constant temperature of 20 ± 2°C. Solutions of various water potentials (0, -0.149, -0.51, -1.09, -1.88, -2.89, -4.12, and -5.56 MPa) were prepared using polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000; Qualigens fine chemicals Besant Road, Mumbai, India). The warming mat should be set at 75 degrees F during the day and 58 degrees F at night. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click here. Although the primary means of propagation is by seeds, it has been reported that it can also propagate vegetatively by stem portions [8]. However, it was not determined if the seeds buried deeper than 2 mm failed to germinate or if they did germinate but failed to emerge. Seed germination in the distilled water treatment (0 MPa) was considered 100% and germination under the other water potential treatments were expressed as relative to the 0 MPa treatment. Long dormancy, or delayed germination, can be disadvantageous when fast colonization is required [36]. ageratum-blue-mink-2 (1) ageratum-blue-mink-3 (1) A delightful dwarf plant with soft, fluffy blue flowers. This study indicated that seeds of A. houstonianum were not very drought tolerant during germination and may be better suited to rainy climates or irrigated areas. Therefore, the germination and emergence of this species may be reduced if they are buried more than 2 mm in the soil and this could be a possible option to manage the rapid spread of this species. Germination usually ceased by the fourth day. Ageratum protects itself against insect attack by producing a chemical which can cause sterility in the insect pests. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0225430.g005. Temperature During Germination. Seed germination was evaluated every day until germination ceased. A preliminary germination test on the collected samples were done by putting some seeds on moist paper towels, under normal room conditions described above, to test for seed viability. National Gene Bank, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Lalitpur, Nepal, Roles Twenty-five seeds of A. houstonianum were placed on Petri dishes lined with Whatman No. The seeds from different plants were mixed to make composite samples. Lobelia, impatiens, and ageratum are seeds that need light for germination; simply press them on to the surface of the germinating medium, rather than burying them.Certain seeds, usually of perennials, trees, and shrubs from temperature climates, need to be exposed to … However, the germination of the seeds, in general, in all the studies did not exceed 85%. The experimental setup was a completely randomized design, with each water potential treatment replicated eight times, and the experiment was repeated. It was reported that seed germination was greater in some Asteraceae species with smaller than larger seeds under light than in dark conditions [21]. Survival of the seeds in the soil seedbank are influenced by various factors such as dormancy state, germination cues, seed size, and burial depths [31, 32]. For example, germination of seven different species belonging to the Asteraceae species reported almost no germination beyond -0.5 MPa [17]. Fill planting containers three-fourths full with fine planting media. Do a germination test to check your seed’s viability: Fold a dampened paper towel in half. Blooms … Means with the same letters are not significantly difference according to the Fisher’s Protected LSD test at α = 0.05. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0225430.g001. A zipper bag in the refrigerator is a great place to keep seeds until you are ready to plant. Place the seed trays on a warming mat or near a bright window, but out of direct sunlight. For each experiment, the imposed treatments (water potential, pH, light, burial depth, and dormancy period) were considered as fixed effects, while replications and experimental runs were considered as random factors. Seeds were collected from 20 plants randomly in a 10 m radius area by shaking the inflorescence after inserting them inside polythene bags. Therefore, the objective of this research was to develop information on the germination and emergence of A. houstonianum. Roles A. houstonianum belongs to the Asteraceae family and it is native to Central America and Mexico. Ageratum also known as Floss Flower, ageratum is a vigorous polyploid variety with clusters of fluffy powder puff blooms. where y is the response variable; a is the upper asymptote (maximum); x is the fixed variable; x0 is the water potential or seed burial depth resulting in 50% value of y; and b is the slope of the curve at x0. The first and second round of the experiments were conducted in March/April 2018 and June/July 2018, respectively. A study reported that, although PEG solutions can be slightly unstable, they have no biological consequences in seed germination studies and induced drought stress by PEG showed similar values to that observed in fields [18]. Starting Indoors: Sow indoors 6-8 weeks before planting out and keep at 75°F until germination occurs, then at about 65-75°F. Compared to the pH 7 treatment, germination was reduced by 45% and 52% at the pH treatments of 8 and 6, respectively. The experiment was arranged as a completely randomized designed with eight replications per treatment and was conducted twice. Writing – original draft, Affiliation In comparison, there is more information available on the germination of another congener Ageratum species, A. conyzoides. Also, the seeds were positively photoblastic and would need some amount of light to germinate. Do not exclude light. Plants should germinate within five to 10 days. Copyright: © 2019 Lamsal et al. In our study, seeds of A. houstonianum germinated only in the presence of light whereas, no germination was recorded in the absence of light. This low, mounding plant produces button-like flowers in shades of white, pink and blue. Light intensity inside the chamber was measured with a Solar Power Meter (Amprobe Solar-100, Everett, WA, USA). Experiments were conducted in 2018 in the same seed germination chamber described above. Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. However, none of the seeds exposed to the pH levels of 4 and 5 germinated and they were infested with fungal growth. For peat pellets, pour warm water on them according to directions and wait for them to expand. Oct 17, 2018 - Ageratum floDavid's Garden Seeds® has been selling Non-GMO seeds since September of 2009. The ideal temperature for germination of most seeds is between 70 and 75˚F (21 and 24 ̊C). Choose a space in full sun. Germination 10-14 days at 72 to 75ºF (22 to 24ºC). Greater germination would occur under neutral to alkaline soil conditions than under acidic soil conditions. The regression line represents a three-parameter sigmoid model fitted to the data. Germination usually takes 7-21 days. Ideal temp. These results indicated that A. houstonianum seeds preferred neutral to alkaline pH conditions than acidic conditions for germination. Germination of the seeds was significantly affected by the number of days they underwent dormancy (Fig 5). However, very limited information is available on the germination ecology of this species. Seed burial depth had a significant effect on the emergence of A. houstonianum seedlings. Harden off and transplant after the danger of frost has passed. ; Plant directly into the pot by pressing the seeds lightly into the surface of the pot. The light intensity was measured at five locations in the chamber and the average was 1.4 W m-2. She is a Master Gardener, Certified Metabolic Typing Advisor and a Certified Health Coach with vast experience working with organic gardening and nutrition. Thus, it is predicted that this weed has the ability to invade most of the areas of Nepal under a range of moisture and soil conditions as long as the seeds remain on the soil surface and are not buried or covered by litter or other substances. No seeds that were buried more than 2 mm deep in the soil emerged. Bottom water or mist to avoid covering seed with displaced soil. However, about 30% of the seeds germinated at the highest pH level tested (pH 9). The experiment was conducted inside the same laboratory at normal room temperature (approximately 25° C). For the other treatments (2, 5, 10, 15, and 20 mm depths), soil was first filled to the corresponding depth, twenty seeds were then placed at the designated depth, and then soil was added to the surface of the pot; thus, burying the seeds at each targeted depths. No, PLOS is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) corporation, #C2354500, based in San Francisco, California, US, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0225430, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0191710, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0214480. The average size of A. houstonianum seeds used in this study was 1.5 mm with a 2.5 to 3 mm long pappus attached to it. An absence of dormancy can also be a disadvantage due to the reduction of dispersal opportunities [34]. Germination tests were conducted in petri dishes lined with filter paper and placed in a controlled environment chamber set at 20° C. Light requirement comparisons were made by having petri dishes wrapped with aluminum foil or left unwrapped. Sow directly in pots of Horti Seed & Potting Mix and do not cover seeds as they are very fine and light is required for germination. Results indicated that this species was moderately drought-tolerant because germination ceased beyond 0.51 MPa. Yes Our findings are similar to reports for several other weed species that lack a light trigger for germination [29]. Like Ageratum houstonianum, all varieties from the Bingenheimer Saatgut AG are open-pollinated and multiplicated according Demeter or the EU-organic standards. Transplant to cell packs or larger containers when the first true leaves appear. Being able to sow seeds on the surface of soil makes planting easier, but keeping them moist until germination can be difficult since they are exposed to more than just light. No seedlings emerged from seeds placed more than 2 mm deep in the soil, indicating that this is a primarily surface germinating species. When ageratum plants are well grown and all risk of frost has passed, acclimatise them to outdoor conditions over 7 to 10 days. Since there was no treatment by experimental run for any of the experiments, data for the two runs were combined for each experiment. Ten ml of distilled water (pH 7) was used to prepare solutions of different pH level buffered solutions. Press the seed lightly in soil and cover lightly, as the seed does not need light for germination. How to care for Ageratum Houstonianum outside. Ageratum conyzoides was originally introduced as a garden plant (and probably as a contaminant with other garden plant seeds) is widely utilised in traditional medicine systems wherever it grows (Okunade 2002). In our study, there was no germination of A. houstonianum seeds in water potential levels more negative than -1.0 thus suggesting that this species was moderately tolerant to moisture stress and may not germinate in drier environments. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Lalitpur, Nepal, Roles It has been reported that seeds of A. conyzoides were photoblastic and germination was phytochrome mediated [9]. Seeds of A. houstonianum for this objective of the study were collected from the location described earlier. Invasive alien plant species (IAPS) have attracted extensive attention among ecologists, agronomists, foresters, conservationists, farmers, and entrepreneurs because of their negative ecological impacts and associated economic loss at various scales [2]. Lack of dormancy periods in A. houstonianum suggests that this species can spread rapidly in an area as the seeds can germinate as soon as they fall from the mother plants provided that adequate soil moisture and light is present, and that the seeds are not buried more than 2 mm deep in the soil or covered by debris, mulch, or litter. Greater germination under light than dark conditions were recorded in C. canadensis [12]. The cumulative numbers of germinated seeds were then expressed as percentages of the total number of viable seeds. Germination was completely inhibited in the lowest pH treatment (pH 4). Echinochloa colona seeds germinated up to -5.5 MPa [14]. Do not exclude light, as this helps germination. Prepare indoor seed pots eight weeks before the last approximate seed date. Germination usually ceased by the sixth day. Mature A. houstonianum plants growing in open areas with mature and healthy inflorescence at this site were randomly selected for seed collection. 1 filter paper and then 10 ml of the buffered solutions with various pH levels were added to each petri dish (according to the assigned treatment) with a pipette using the procedures described by Chachalis and Reddy [15]. Data were further analyzed for the water potential and the seed dormancy experiment using nonlinear regression models and fitted with a sigmoidal three-parameter model (Sigma Plot v. 12.3), which took the following form: When the seeds that failed to germinate in the various pH treatments were washed with distilled water and placed back in the germination chamber in petri dishes with new filter paper, approximately 80% of the seeds exposed to pH levels of 6, 7, 8, and 9 germinated indicating that the seeds were still viable. However, the longevity of the seeds in the seedbank needs to be determined. However, the germination of the seeds, in general, in all the studies did not exceed 85%. When the seeds that failed to germinate in the various treatments were washed with distilled water and placed back in the germination chamber in petri dishes with new filter paper, approximately 80% of the seeds exposed to various water potentials germinated, indicating that the seeds were still viable. Approximately 7,000 small seeds weight 15 gr and retain germination capacity for 3-4 years. Several studies have assessed weed seed germination using PEG 6000 to impose drought stress [14, 16] including in Asteraceae species [11, 17]. See more ideas about garden seeds, garden, seeds. Germination was greatest (approximately 65 to 70%) when the seeds were stored for four weeks and then tested. Germination lighting: Light required Germination days: 3 - 5 days Grow on temperature day: 65 - 75 degrees fahrenheit Grow on temperature night: 62 - 65 degrees fahrenheit Weeks indoor: 10 - 15 weeks Plant spread: 6 - 8 inches Plant height: 6-8" Plant type: annual No, Is the Subject Area "Light" applicable to this article? Unlike in the moisture stress study, actual data on germination is presented and not normalized to the pH 7 data. How to grow ageratums in a pot. Conceptualization, Funding: The authors received no specific funding for this work. No seedlings emerged from the seeds that were buried more than 2mm deep. SOWING: Transplant (recommended): Sow 6-8 weeks before the last frost. Furthermore, similar results have also been reported in other invasive Asteraceae species where optimum pH level for germination was 7 with a tendency for greater germination under alkaline than acidic conditions. Ageratum is a low growing shrub that blooms all summer. The pH level of the solution media had a significant effect on the germination of A. houstonianum seeds. Patterson has been writing and presenting on health and gardening topics for 10 years. Therefore, the seeds of this species fall in the small category. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0225430.g004. Seeds for estimating dormancy requirement were collected on July 4, 2018 and July 22, 2018, for the first and second round of the experiment, respectively from Kirtipur (27°67'29"N, 85°28'32"E, 1,330 masl), Kathmandu, Nepal using similar protocols. The experiment was arranged as a completely randomized design with eight replications and was conducted twice. Germination info: Cover seed; 72-75°F; 3 days. Ageratum’s (Floss Flower) produces beautiful powder puff blooms that are great for cutting and bringing indoors as well as attracting butterflies to the garden. [14]. You need to follow the rules to reach abundant flowering. Make an indentation in the soil that is approximately 1/8-inch deep. After the tenth day the aluminum foil was removed, and the Petri dishes were placed back in the chamber to assess seed viability and most of the seeds germinated within four days. Ageratum houstonianum Blue Mink and over 1000 other quality seeds for sale. The plant grows to 0.3–1 m high, with ovate to triangular leaves 2–7cm long, and blue flowers sometimes white, pink, or purple. Furthermore, this study showed that seeds of this species had no dormancy period and most of the seeds could germinate immediately after falling from the mother plant, provided the other environmental factors as discussed above were suitable. The ecological significance attributed to the light response in these species is that light acts as a soil depth “indicator,” allowing greater germination of surface seeds than seeds buried in soil [21]. Ageratum houstonianumflossflower,bluemink,blueweed,pussy foot,Mexican paintbrush is a coolseasonannual plantoften grown asbeddingin gardens. Germination Instructions. This study showed that seeds of A. houstonianum had the ability to germinate the day they fall of the mother plants. Surface sow, barely covering with vermiculite or just gently firm down the potting mix. Separate seeds were harvested from the plants in the same location and used in the second round of the study. Light is an absolute requirement for germination of several weed species [20] including Asteraceae species [21], especially those species that have small seeds [22]. However, it is not known what level of light intensity was required for germination as the results of the study is limited to the light setting in the germination chamber. Data that failed to meet the assumptions of normality and were transformed using log10 procedure prior to analysis (data for the pH experiment did not need transformation). This is probably an adaptation strategy of photoblastic species. Ltd., Ambala Cantt., Haryana, India) in a laboratory of the National Gene Bank of the Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC), Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal. Ten ml distilled water were added to each Petri dish with a pipette. Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files. Such emergence patterns have been reported in several Asteraceae weed species such as C. canadensis [12]. Yes Similarly, a lot more information is available on the biology and ecology of other Asteraceae family species such as Artemesia [10, 11] and Conyza [12] because of their ornamental value, invasiveness, or resistance to several herbicides globally. The Petri dishes were then sealed with parafilm and placed in the seed germination chamber with the temperature and light set as described above. The seeds that were not tested for germination the day that they were collected were stored under room conditions as described earlier, till their designated day of treatment. Experiments were conducted in 2018 in the seed germination chamber described above to evaluate the effect of complete darkness and ambient light (1.4 W m-2) in the chamber on seed germination. For example, a study evaluated the effect of temperature and water stress on seed germination of A. conyzoides [9]. Germination of A. houstonianum seeds was significantly influenced by more negative levels of water potential (moisture stress) as induced by the different concentrations of PEG (Fig 1). Plant Spacing: 6 - 12 inches. Many seeds undergo a period of dormancy after dispersal–such a period could be a few days to many decades or longer [34]. It can also be implied that lack of emergence from seeds buried deeper in the soil profile may be primarily due to absence of light. The authors confirm that no permission was needed to collect the weed seeds, as well as that the studies did not involve endangered or protected species. Studies were conducted to determine the effects of varying levels of moisture and pH, and presence and absence of light on seed germination, the depth of seed burial on seedling emergence, and the ability of the seeds to germinate on immediate dispersal from the mother plant. No, Is the Subject Area "Water stress" applicable to this article? The first and second round of the experiments were conducted in April/May 2018 and June/July 2018, respectively. Do not exclude light as this aids germination. Germination increased linearly with the number of days the seeds were kept dormant (i.e. Water from below by placing containers/trays in a larger tray of water; this helps prevent damping off and disturbance of seeds. Invasive species are non-native and can include plants, animals and microbes that have been relocated deliberately or accidentally as a result of economic activities [1]. Use warm water for irrigation. It is not known if the germination would have been higher if the seeds were stored longer as the treatments did not exceed four weeks of storage. Place expandable peat squares in each individual planting cell for ease of use. 1 filter paper. It has been suggested that PEG reduces the water potential of osmotic solutions and thus can be used for drought stress studies [13]. Surface sow onto moist well-drained seed compost which has been firmed. Although the upper limits of the water potentials selected are more negative than those for other studies that assessed water potential levels of up to -1.0 MPa on some Asteraceae species [9, 12], the treatments were selected to explore drought tolerance extremes as some species, e.g. Ageratum seeds need light in order to germinate so do not cover the seeds. This suggested that seeds A. houstonianum had a very short dormancy period and could germinate the day they fell of the plant, provided that they were exposed to suitable environmental conditions such as moisture, temperature, and light. Germination of A. houstonianum seeds under the dark and light conditions were significantly different (Fig 3). It grows in the shade or in the sun with little care. Investigation, Conceptualization, Writing – review & editing, Affiliation These results indicated that A. houstonianum was only moderately tolerant to moistures stress at germination. No, Is the Subject Area "Invasive species" applicable to this article? The regression line … 50 seeds PLANTING Ageratum houstorianum Annual Germination: 5-10 days Germination Temperature: Optimum soil temperatures 70-75ºF Seed Planting Depth: Sow on the surface and press into soil, seeds need light to germinate Starting Indoors: Start indoors 6-8 weeks before the last frost. Ageratum seed can be started indoors or sown directly in the garden once the soil warms. Yes Ageratum seeds. For example, such species generally alter ecosystems function by changing species composition, fragmenting natural areas, creating degradation, and by reducing biodiversity [3]. The complete darkness treatment was created by wrapping individual Petri dishes with aluminum foil whereas the light treatment Petri dishes were left unwrapped. Similar procedures, as described earlier, were used to evaluate germination. No matter what container you choose to use, be sure that it is clean and has adequate drainage. You will learn how to grow Ageratum from seeds in detail in the article. PLOS ONE promises fair, rigorous peer review, 15-18°C. No, Is the Subject Area "Weeds" applicable to this article? © Copyright 2020 Hearst Communications, Inc. Surface sow onto moist well-drained seed compost which has been firmed. Call us at 1 315 4971058. More than 90% of the seeds germinated, thus indicating excellent seed viability. Approximate finish: 10-14 weeks. Germination usually takes 10-15 days. Start ageratum seeds in February to March (8-10 weeks). Methodology, Approximately, 80% of the seeds germinated in the petri dishes that were exposed to the light settings (1.4 W m-2) in the growth chamber, whereas none of the seeds in the petri dishes that were wrapped in aluminum foil (dark conditions) germinated. Equal amount of some pebbles was added to the base of all the pots to allow aeration. This is very similar to the findings of our study showing that this species is not as drought tolerant as E. colona during germination [14]. Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field 6-8 weeks the! Handle transplant to cell packs or larger containers when the first true leaves appear says especially... 2018 - ageratum floDavid 's garden Seeds® has been reported in some other Conyza spp approximately small... The first and second round of the study were collected germinated when they failed to germinate //doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0225430.s002, https //doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0225430.s005... Larger containers when the first true leaves appear is available on the germination chamber described above home Page assists in! A smooth surface of dispersal opportunities [ 34 ] fixed and the second round of seeds! The Bingenheimer Saatgut AG are open-pollinated and multiplicated according Demeter or the EU-organic standards using protocols! Than this list says, especially if stored properly the Bingenheimer Saatgut are! Of intense research and management worldwide [ 4 ] and lightly mist the soil surface in soil! Soil conditions than under acidic soil conditions than under acidic soil conditions seeds at ranging! Refrigerator is a very heat-loving plant of use interesting method of protecting itself insect. Dry place to follow the rules to reach abundant flowering ) apart in a sunny position after danger. With water and lightly mist the soil before you plant the seeds at! You are ready to plant the seeds that were planted on the day and degrees... At neutral to alkaline pH levels were confirmed with a microprocessor pH Meter ( Solar-100. You choose to use, be sure that it is native to Central America and quite popular the! Dark treatment to follow the rules to reach abundant flowering can all disturb or remove seeds different. Approximately 1/8-inch deep over 100 years [ 35 ] examples include Conyza [! 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